Smart cities

 
  Cities have enabled people to advance socially and economically although challenges exist to maintaining cities. In the process to thrive and grow - Common city challenges include congestion, unregulated growth, a shortage of adequate housing. With around 3.5 billion people living in cities today, cities to be livable in the decades to come requires controlled urbanization with an emphasis to become sustainable living hubs.

  The world’s cities occupy just 2 per cent of the Earth’s land, but account for 60-80 per cent of energy consumption and 75 per cent of carbon emissions. But the high density of cities can bring efficiency gains and technological innovation while reducing resource and energy consumption. It is in this context quantification of the biodiversity and sustainable housing becomes important to drive the growth of cities towards liveability, smart and sustainability.

  “A Smart City is a well performing city built on the ‘smart’ combination of endowments and activities of self-decisive, independent and aware citizens. The level of interest in smart cities is growing, and the recent literature on this topic (Holland, 2008; Caragliu et al., 2009, Nijkamp et al., 2011 and Lombardi et al., 2012) characterise a city as smart based on economic development, environment, human capital, culture and leisure, and e-governance. Thus, the smartness concept is strictly linked to urban efficiency in a multifaceted way." (Giffinger, et.al 2007)

    Quantification of Biodiversity is correlated to environmental health of the region. Since 1992, eleven meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) have been held. COP-11 focused on importance of Biodiversity indices to quantify the changing biodiversity maps across the globe.


   Although the smartness concept is linked to several factors the scope of the research is to understand significance of biodiversity and real estate indices in enabling smart and sustainable cities. An effort is made to quantify smartness and sustainable cites as a measure of biodiversity and real estate market indices